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Founded in Sydney by Sir Edward Knox in 1855. The company's success was largely testament to Knox's good management and enterprising skills. CSR established refineries across Australia. The company first began refining imported raw sugar, In 1869, it began to cultivate its own cane in New South Wales, with sugar mills erected on the Clarence, Tweed and Richmond Rivers. Expanded into the Melbourne market in the 1870's. Over the next two decades, mills were established in Queensland, New Zealand and Fiji. In 1923, the Queensland state government signed an agreement with CSR to refine all of that state's sugar production, a monopoly that was to continue until 1989. Mills outside Queensland were sold in the 1970's. About 80% of production is exported.

Modern Day
Refined sugar products for the retail market are now produced in a joint venture with Mackay Sugar Co-Operative (75% controlled by CSR), who operate refineries in Mackay (Queensland), Melbourne and Perth. The CSR brand is used on most of the retail sugar products produced. The production makes up around 60% of the sugar on the Australian domestic market, and 80% of that in New Zealand. Using the molasses by-product from the sugar mills, the company also distills ethanol for use in fuel ethanol manufacture, and varying grades of domestic industrial ethanols for food production and other chemical processes
The Group's principal activities are carried out through the following divisions: Building Products, Sugar - Milling, Sugar - Ethanol and Refining, Aluminum and Property. Building products involves the manufacture and supply of building products including plasterboard, fibre cement, glasswool and rockwool insulation, clay bricks and pavers, concrete and terracotta roof tiles, and lightweight concrete products. Major brands include Bradford, Cemintel, Gyprock, Hebel, Wunderlich, Monier and PGH. Sugar - Milling includes the production of raw and renewable electricity. Sugar - Ethanol and Refining involves in the production of refined sugar and ethanol. Aluminum includes the production of aluminum ingots, billets and slabs. Property includes the development of residential estates and the sale or leasing of industrial estates. It operates in Australia, New Zealand and Asia

Sugar Australia Pty Limited
was established in March 1998 as a joint venture between CSR Limited (50%), Mackay Sugar Co-operative Association Limited (25%), and ED&F Mann (25%).
In 2004, CSR purchased ED&F Mann's share of the joint venture, and CSR now hold 75%.
The company operates 3 sugar refineries, located in Melbourne, Mackay and Auckland. The Melbourne refinery at Yarraville is integral to the food and beverage industry in Victoria. The Sugar Australia Yarraville refinery has been in operation since 1873
Since their inception back in 1855, their shipping division is now just a small subsidiary, with ASP Ship Management and in 2008 Teekay Shipping administering that side of operations
This page covers CSR from their concept as shipowners up until 2009 as Sugar Australia Pty Ltd
Mackay Sugar Co-operative Association Limited

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FIONA (11)
FIONA (111)
FIONA (11) image courtesy State Library Queensland
FIONA (111) sepia image courtesy State Library New South Wales
FIONA (111) Dufty postcard personal collection
FIONA (1) 728 gross tons. Lb: 61.0 x 8.6 metres. Iron hulled cargo vessel built by Cunliffe & Dunlop, Inch Yard for Colonial Sugar Refining Co., Sydney New South Wales. 2 cylinder compound engine. Carried coal from Newcastle New South Wales to the sugar mills in northern. New South Wales and raw sugar on the return journey to Pyrmont in Sydney. Wrecked 6nm S Seal Rock Point 29th January 1882
FIONA (11) 904 gross tons, 467 net. (another source states 817 gross tons) Lbd: 211'1" x 30'2" x 15'4". Twin screw cargo vessel built by J Reid & Co Port Glasgow for Colonial Sugar Refining Co., Sydney New South Wales. Up to and including 1908, serviced between Suva and Sydney transporting sugar. In a deal with AUSN Co, she was withdrawn and later in 1908 sold to W Collin & Sons Ltd, Brisbane and renamed Musgrave. March 1910 owned by Musgrave Steamship Co Ltd., a subsidiary of W Collin & Sons Ltd. Worked the Gulf of Carpentaria on a mail service as chartered by AUSN Co. 1920 sold to George T Bell, Melbourne. 1923 owned by William J Gibson, Melbourne. 1930 R. Kennedy & Sons Pty., Melbourne. Scrapped - 1930 hull reported scuttled in Storm Bay, near Leura
FIONA (111) 4681 gross tons. Lb: 109.9 x 15.9 metres. Steel hulled cargo vessel built by Raylton Dixon, Middlesbrough for Colonial Sugar Refining Co., Sydney New South Wales. Triple expansion engine. Sold 1932 to M L Justesen and renamed Johanne Justesen. Torpedoed by submarine 9.04N/75.58E 15th February 1942
FIONA (1V) 2198 gross tons. Lb: 87.3 x 13.4 metres. Steel hulled single screw cargo vessel built by Caledon Shipbuilding and Engineering Co, Dundee for Colonial Sugar Refining Co., Sydney. Triple expansion engine = 10 knots. 14 December 1940 sank the J Patrick steamship 'Cardross' in a collision near Sydney. 34.07S 151.32E. During the Second World War, she maintained sugar shipping links with Fiji, and assisted with war supplies to service personnel in, and the people of, that country. Sold 1959 to International Molasses and renamed Leona. Sold to Chiat Lee Navigation Trading Co 1964 renamed Voltaire. 1965 renamed Tarama. Sold 1965 to Winley Shipping Co., renamed Winley. Sold to T Lim 1966 renamed Sumba Permina. 1966 renamed Sumber Tunas. Scrapped at Hong Kong November 1968

MAY QUEEN 52 gross tons, 33 net. Lbd: 92'8" x 14'3" x 5'7". on59536 Iron paddle steamer built at Balmain, Sydney. Machinery: steam engine 30 hp. First owners N & A Campbell, Sydney. Employed on the Brisbane - Clarence River trade. Taken to Sydney where, either before or after a refit sold July 1870 to CSR, as registered under General Manager Mr Knox. Serviced the Richmond and Clarence Rivers and/or between both rivers. 1891 register closed with 'broken up'
ILUKA 121 gross tons, 81 net. Lbd: 110'9" x 18'3" x 7'2". on75036 Iron tug built by W M Ford at Blue Point, Sydney. Machinery: 2 cylinder vertical S C engine 50 hp built by D W Henderson, Glasgow. Single mast. Enrolled under ownership of J G Ross, General Manager of CSR, and registered Sydney. Employed upon the Clarence River New South Wales towing lighters laden with sugar cane. 1911 converted into a lighter and sold to the New South Wales Government and employed at Newcastle until she sank (Source: much of this data from R Parsons 'Paddle Steamers of Australia & New Zealand' published 2002. A recommended read)
KEERA 169 gross tons, 114 net. Lbd: 102'1" x 20'5" x 10'4". Iron passenger steamship of 2 cylinder engines as built by Thomas Toward, St Peters Quay, Newcastle-on-Tyne for Henry G Smith, Newcastle England. Registry transferred to Sydney Australia in January 1852. Has distinction of being the first single screw steamship built overseas for an Australian owner. Intended for the Sydney - Wollongong trade she was found too large for the Wollongong basin and offered for sale. Purchased in November 1852 by the Geelong S N Co., Geelong who placed her on the Geelong - Melbourne run. Sold October 1854 to G & J Gill, Melbourne. September 1885 of E Fowler & Partners. October 1859 of J Fowler & others. During 1864 she was modified to be of 197 gross tons and 145 net, with dimensions as 110'1" x 20'4" x 9'3'. July 1865 owned by Gippsland S N Co., Melbourne. Worked the Port Albert - Gippsland coastal trade routes until sold to Carey & Gillies in October 1865. March 1867 she was wrecked on the New Zealand coast. Salvaged at a later unknown date, she was rebuilt, her new life saw her lengthened to 133' x 20'4" x 9'4" with tonnage as 230 gross and 158 net. January 1873 saw her owned by H A Coffey, registered Sydney. March 1873 purchased by Colonial Sugar Refining Co (CSR) and worked their run between Sydney and the Clarence River, northern New South Wales. Curiously she carried sugar to Sydney and freighted coal on her return voyages. Hulked in 1877
TERRANORA 349 gross tons, 199 net. Lbd: 141'5" x 27'1" x 10'4". on75005 Steel paddle steamer, 2 cylinder diagonal engine producing 94 horsepower as built by D & W Henderson, Glasgow for the Colonial Sugar Refining Co, (Joseph Ross) Sydney. Worked the Sydney - North New South Wales run in passenger transport and carriage of sugar from this concern's various mills. At one stage worked the Brisbane - Tweed River run. In 1890 sold to A Cassidy (a catholic priest of Macleay NSW & M Gallagher, Waverley New Zealand. Registered Auckland. 1890 of Thomas Bayley & others, Waitara New Zealand. 1892 of the New Zealand Government, Wellington. 1896 A Tankard & others, Auckland. 1898 Northern Steamship Co Ltd., New Zealand. New Zealand service included cable laying as well as general cargo coastal work. Hulked 1906
KYOGLE 106 gross tons, 67 net. Paddle steamer. Lbd: 100'4" x18'6" x 6'0". on83632 Built at Mort's Dock & Engineering Co Ltd, Balmain, Sydney for CSR Co, Sydney. 2 cylinder diagonal disconnecting steam engine S C 35 horsepower as made by D W Henderson, Glasgow. Employed towing/handling cane laden barges on the Northern New South Wales Rivers at the various refineries owned by this concern. At a later time was re-deployed to Sydney for the handling of lighters on the harbour. Registration closed 1907 as 'broken up' with remains abandoned in the shallows of Emigrant Creek, near Ballina New South Wales (Source: much of this data from R Parsons 'Paddle Steamers of Australia & New Zealand' published 2002. A recommended read)


As at July 1885, W H Smith Ltd held the contract for downshipment of sugar from the Port of Mackay. At July one third was sub-allocated to the Queensland Steam Shipping Co and another third to the Australasian Steam Navigation Co (ASN). Ensuing freight-war hostilities saw ASN, in October 1885, lose that percentage altogther

No images available
CAKOBAU 178 gross tons, 112 net. Lbd: 111'3" x 19'3" x 7'6". on83667 Iron paddle steamer built by W Ford at Berrys Bay Sydney for CSR Co Ltd, Sydney. Machinery: 2 L P diagonalS C engine 40 horsepower. Named after a King of Fiji at the time, she was taken to Fiji via the ss Fiona for service in conjunction with the new mill CSR bult and operated on the Rewa River at Nausori. Believed returned to Australia after damaged at Luvuka. Early 1900's engine removed and employed as a lighter on the Clarence River. At some unknown date her remains abandoned on a bank between Woodburn and Yaamba. Registry offricially closed with 'no trace' 1954
CHATSWORTH 67 gross tons, 42 net. Lbd: 88'5' x 16'5" x 6'6". on59567 Iron double ended paddle steamer built at the Australasian Steam Navigation Co's Pyrmont workshops, Sydney for CSR Co Ltd, Sydney. Of 50 horsepower. Serviced most of her career on the Northern Rivers of New South Wales including a further 10 years as a lighter after engine was removed 1891. Early possibility she may have been taken to Rewa River Fiji at the construction time of CSR's new mill at Nausori
DARKWATER 67 gross tons, 42 net. Lbd: 88'5' x 16'5" x 6'6". on59564 Iron paddle steamer built at the Australasian Steam Navigation Co's Pyrmont workshops, Sydney for CSR Co Ltd, Sydney. 2 cylinder steam engine of 50 horsepower. Same dimensions as ps Chatsworth. Serviced all of her career on the Northern Rivers of New South Wales towing sugar cane barges. Register closed in 1911 with vessel being broken up, whilst Company records state hulk sunk near Harwood Mill on the Clarence River
RARAWAI Unregistered vessel constructed somewhere in Sydney. Roughly 108 x 26 feet, flat bottom, paddles each side as a wooden paddle steamer. Coal fired water tube boiler. Held limited passenger accomodation. Upon completion was taken in tow by the ss Fiona along with paddle steamer Cakobau also in tow to Fiji for services on the River Ba. With the completion of a rail line to Lautoka she was scuttled in deep water off Ba heads

CSR river punts, launches etc., including Kusarawa , Nanumiau, not listed here owing to no information available

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trendy Yarraville Brisbane Auckland traditional

Postcard 1908

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TAMBUA image courtesy State Library Victoria
MOAMOA image courtesy Australian War Memorial, colour image of Moamoa as SAIBURI courtesy T Dallen
DRYABBA 89 gross tons. Built North Sydney. 1929 dismantled, remains abandoned opposite Broadwater Mill
TAMBUA (1) 3615 gross tons. No further details known
TAMBUA (11) 3566 gross tons. Lb: 110.8 x 15.3 metres. Steel hulled cargo ship built at Caledon Shipyards, Dundee for CSR Co Ltd., Sydney. Single screw, triple expansion engine making 11 knots. Served as a supply ship, Noumea, 1941. Sold 1969 to Madrigal Shipping Co., renamed Maria Rosa as a 'part molasses' tanker. Scrapping began 7 January 1973 at Kaohsiung
MOAMOA 554 gross tons. Lbd: 148'5" x 28'5" x 10'6". Built by Hong Kong & Whampoa Dockyard Co., Hong Kong for Burns Philp (South Seas) Ltd, for the Gilbert Island trade. Sold February 1941 to Colonial Sugar Refining Co., Sydney for their Sydney - Queensland run. November 1942 requisitioned by the USA small ships command as a supply ship for Milne Bay-based Motor Torpedo Boats. 1946 sold to Singapore interests and renamed Hung Hai. Sold 1948 to Thai Navigation Ltd., Bangkok and renamed Saiburi. Broken up at Bangkok December 1978

1891 saw the Union S S Co of New Zealand hold contract over 3 years in transporting all CSR sugar from Suva, Fiji to back to Australia and, from Sydney to Suva all and any CSR stores as required. At times this involved transportation of horses and mules from Cairns to Fiji.
At April 1893 Adelaide S S Co won the annual sugar transport contract. As at end of 1893 Queensland Rail transported all sugar from Isis Gladstone to CSR's newly opened refinerery at New Farm Brisbane. This left coastal shippers with the downshipment contract of produce from Millaquin and Yengarie only. Again where AUSN had this contract, they lost out to the bi-weekly service presented by Howard Smith Ltd, Melbourne and W Collins, Brisbane. Where 18,000 tons needed to be moved and, where CSR had but a few ships of their own in ensuring at least a minimal amount of sugar transportment, every annual contract was to be treated with due respect. Whilst AUSN (a merger of ASN and Queensland SS Co), being the biggest shipowner on the coast, preferred to supply vessels when it suited them, the competition from others saw the southern states and New Zealand get the produce they wanted, sooner by Smiths and Collin
1894 Adelaide S S Co also held a 3 year contract taking sugar from Johnstone River to Townsville, sharing the carriage with AUSN Co's vessel ss Palmer

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RONA (1)
RONA (11)
RONA (111)
RONA 1st image courtesy State Library Queensland, RONA (11) & (111) images personal collection
RONA (1) 6572 gross tons. Lb: 121.9 x 16.5 metres. Steel single screw tankship built by Raylton Dixon at Middlesborough, England. Triple expansion engine = 10.5 knots. Laid down as the Rona for CSR Australia 1916 but launched as the Roseleaf for The Shipping Controller, London. Same year came under control of British Navy and renamed Califol. She had operated as HM Transport Y2205, in Mediterranean and Asian waters. Later same year - 1916 returned ownership to Colonial Sugar Refineries and renamed Rona. 1920 owned by British Tanker Co., and renamed British Rose. 1930 owned by La Riviera and renamed Portofino. Bombed and sunk by aircraft off Benghazi 6th November 1942
RONA (11) 6205 gross tons. Lb: 121.9 x 16.5 metres. Steel single screw cargo vessel built by Raylton Dixon at Middlesborough, England. Triple expansion engine = 10 knots. Became part molasses tanker - 1956 sold to J Manners & Co., Hong Kong and renamed Suva Breeze. Scrapped Hong Kong commencing 27th February 1959
RONA (111) 4469 gross tons. Steel single screw cargo vessel built by Hall Russell at Aberdeen, Scotland. 1956 sold to unknown owners and renamed Panoriente. 1975 sold to unknown owners and renamed Eastern Venus. Scrapped Kaohsiung March 1980

Broadwater Plant Richmond River

From about 1905 onwards, CSR Mills produce was shipped via Howard Smith Ltd, AUSN and William Collin vessels. In peak seasons as many as five vessels, the mainstays being 'Tinana' and 'Flinders' out of Bundaberg, with 'Koonowarra' out of Burnett River, Maryborough. Others were 'Tay', and the 'Dawn'. From 1911 both Adelaide S S Co and AUSN Co ran vessels for the sugar yield, such being the chartered 'Providence A' taking sugar to Sydney, and W Collins 'Musgrave' ex 'Fiona' of CSR. Also 'Palmer' and 'Taldora along with regulars 'Tinana' and Flinders'. 1915 following the Sugar Acquisition Act, Adelaide S S Co carried most of CSR Queensland sugar whilst AUSN held the Milliquin Co's contract. By 1921 an accord with the major shipping Companies known as the 'Collins Pool' saw harmony in ship sharing where all cargoes on the Australian coast were concerned. This saw the 'Flinders' servicing Bundaberg and Townsville and in 1922 extending her call to Maryborough. 1923 saw the creation of the Sugar Board, an instrumentality of the Queensland Government in place of the Federal Government's field of sugar acquisition. Tenders were called for cartage of sugar, the main players holding on to their existing contracts, such as Howard Smith with Maryborough produce and AUSN gaining CSR sugar from Bundaberg. Jame Patrick had offered a lower quote but didn't have the tonnage to comply, inadvertently forcing Adelaide S S Co to win a renewed contract at a lower price per ton. Mid 1924 the little Howard Smith steamship 'Iceberg' took over from the 'Tay' at MacKay. She then ran sugar from Bundaberg to Brisbane until February 1925. In that year, over 6,000 tons of sugar destined for Pyrmont was unloaded from an AUSN vessel at Brisbane and into the respective holds of the White Star liners, 'Runic', 'Persic' as well as the Aberdeen Shipping liners 'Diogenes' and the 'Sophocles'. 1926-30 (as known) sugar transported by "Baralaba' and 'Tinana'. 1935 onward 'Bingera' serviced Maryborough and Bundaberg along with 'Nalpa', 'Bopple' and 'Baralaba'. 'Babinda' joined the service 1936. At this stage, Adelaide S S Co, AUSN Co and Howard Smith Ltd all held and maintained their sugar contracts. 1938-39 CSR's vessels were lightering the majority of produce from Urangan via Bundaberg. 17 July 1939 500 tons of sugar left aboard the 'Baralaba' from Bundaberg to Gladstone for on-carriage by overseas vessels for export. By 1939 "Baralaba' and 'Buranda' were servicing between Bundaberg and Brisbane, with the 'Baralaba' and 'Babinda' transporting out of Townsville. The 'Mareeba' also did some sugar tranportation south. 1940-41 'Katoora' serviced Brisbane sugar southbound. 'Coombar' from 1941 out of Bundaberg where stocks were piling up and CSR's vessel Moamoa took up the workload south, returning with full loads of general cargoes from Sydney. 'Babinda' and 'Bulimba' also serviced Bundaberg. Even Patricks's vessel 'Cardross' which collided with CSR's 'Tambua' earlier that year, was involved in carriage of sugar and gypsum. Up to 28 February 1948 'Bingera' had carried sugar south, arriving that date at Melbourne on her last voyage with sugar. She was sold, renamed and deployed on a vastly different cargo servcie. Meanwhile 'Babinda' and 'Baralaba' continued their sugar service whilst CSR had constructed a 40,000 storage silo at Pyrmont. 'Baralaba' was laid off and sold, early 1949. 'Babinda' continued in the service. 1953-55 specially designed motor-powered sugar lighter vessels (Adelaide S S Co) were in service. These were 'Korara', Konanda' and 'Karalta' from Mourilyan Harbour and Goondi - Cairns. By 1954 CSR wanted only bulk handling vessels to carry their produce, and of the AUSN fleet, only the 'Caloundra' was considered viable. Taken delivery of the vessel - 'Admiral Fraser' renamed 'Canberra' in 1954, she too as a cargo only vessel was put forward by AUSN. Rail had taken much of the trade as too the existing vessels of CSR. By 1955 the Adelaide S S Co's vessels 'Barossa', 'Bundalier' and 'Ulooloo' were running all year round carrying sugar in bulk as 'golden brown' mountains instead of tightly packed layered bags. 1959 'Meringa' serviced Lucinda Point Brisbane to Pyrmont, Sydney. At 1959 Adelaide S S Co had chartered several vessels to CSR for sugar carriage although it was perhaps more of 'long-term' contractual shipping agreement. The list of vessels over the century plus involved in this trade for CSR is not complete

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SILVERHAWK 2nd image courtesy Mattmar Marine
SILVERHAWK 6771 gross tons, 10563 dwt. Lb: 130.2 x 20.1 metres. Oil tanker built by Cammell Laird & Co. Ltd., Birkenhead for the Nile Steamship Co Ltd (Silver Line UK). Managed by Silver Chemical Tankers Ltd. Single screw, diesel engine. 14.5 knots. As a chemical tanker, towards the end of the 1970's and into the early 1980's, was bareboat chartered by CSR and placed into service on the Australian coast. Silver Line's operations were seized in 1985. Later during that year (1985) was sold to Sea Cheer Investment Panama and renamed Philchem. 1988 renamed Stainless Duke. Broken up at Aliaga November 1997

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SILVERHARRIER centre image courtesy of Wollongong City Library
SILVERHARRIER 4622 gross tons, 6162 dwt. Lb: 107 x 16.7 metres. Oil tanker. Built by Hall & Russell, Aberdeen. Single screw, diesel engine. 14 knots. As a chemical tanker, bareboat chartered late 1970's and placed upon the Australian coast. 1980-81 sold to Univan Ship Management, Hong Kong & renamed Kyrgo. 1981 renamed Batu. 1989 renamed Deniz-Ay with registry as Turkey. Broken up at Aliaga commencing 31 October 2009 [Izmir Geri Donusum]

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Above images courtesy Mattmar Marine at Shippingdatabase
ORMISTON 12,985 gross tons. 16602 dwt. Lbd: 168 x 24.5 x 14 metres. Bulk Carrier built by Tsuneishi at Numakuma for L V L Nominees Pty Ltd., Sydney with CSR as Managers. Single screw, diesel engine making 15.5 knots. At December 2006 was under ASP Ship Management control. September 2007 ownership transferred to EEC Capital Transportes, believed to be Turkish owners whilst flagged Panama and managed by Convoy Maritime Ltd. As at March 2007 she is was replaced by the "Clipper Trust" which has been acquired by CSR under time charter. Broken up at Gadani Beach Pakistan commencing 22 April 2009 & beached (gone) by 9th May 2009
KOWULKA 17796 gross tons. 23258 dwt. Bulk carrier built 1984 at Hyundai at Ulsan. Lbd: 168 x 24.5 x 14 metres. Single screw, diesel engine making 14 knots. Owned by Vanne Pty Ltd with CSR as managers. At December 2006 was under ASP Ship Management control. September 2007 - sold to a Greek Company (Delphi Navigation Ltd) for approx 18 million A$ and renamed Vitafaith. Flagged in Malta and as at July 2012 still in existence

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CLIPPER TRUST image courtesy Cody at Shippingdatabase
PIONEER 17,094 gross tons, 22,288 dwt. Lb: 168.82 x 23.11 metres. Bulk carrier built as the MRS Pioneer by Frisian Welgelegen at Harlingen. Joint BHP Management/McKay Sugar Company. Registered paper owner being E.D.& F.Man Bulk Services Ltd., with registry at MacKay Australia. Classified as BIBO (bulk in, bag out) ship transporting refined sugar on the Australian coast and internationally. This vessel is one of very few of its type in the world. Sugar loaded in bulk and bagged on voyage. MRS standing for 'McKay Sugar Refinery". 1999 renamed Pioneer under the auspices of Sugar Australia/E.D.& F.Man Bulk Services Ltd as paper owners. 2005 registered owner as Refined Sugar Shipping Pty Ltd. 2007 registered owner as TEEKAY Corp. Still in service
CLIPPER TRUST 19,918 gross tons. 30,611 dwt. Lb: 178.7 x 28.6 metres. June 2007. Bulk carrier. Single screw diesel engined of 14 knots. Built at the Cochin Shipyard, India. Registered in the Bahamas and owned by the Danish ‘Clipper Group’. Servicing from Bundaberg to the major Eastern state ports, as contracted by CSR to carry sugar, a job traditionally done by the Ormiston. Transports raw sugar to the Melbourne sugar refinery and gypsum to CSR's plasterboard factories. Clipper Trust is operated under the permit system. September 2007 - Intended to be renamed Fiona but as as February 2009 still operates under chartered name


2010 saw CSR as a modern day conglomerate with much industrial diversity, sell off in it's entirety, ALL of it's sugar operations to Japanese interests. This finalised the era and the efforts of Founder - Edward Knox


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